DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is currently the dominant consumer video format in Asia
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, North America
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,
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Europe
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, and Australia. Discs use the DVD-Video specification require a DVD drive and an MPEG-2 decoder . Commercial DVD movies are encoded use a combination MPEG-2 impact video and audio of varying formats . Typically, the data sequenced for DVD movies range from 3 Mbit/s
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to 9.5 Mbit/s, and the bit rate
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is normally adaptive. It was archetypal approachable for transfer approximately 1997.
restrict 1 Video data
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2 Audio data
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3 Data rate
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4 variant features
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4.1 Filesystem
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4.2 Directory and show structure
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4.2.1 Domains
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4.3 Container
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4.4 Subtitles
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4.5 Chapters and angles
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4.6 excess features
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5 Restrictions
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5.1 limit Travel System
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5.2 Anti-ripping
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5.3 changed user operations
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5.4 Region codes
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6 schedule interface
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7 Players and recorders
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8 Competitors and successors
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8.1 Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD
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8.2 CBHD
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9 cyclic rescued storage-capacity
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10 See also
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11 References
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12 outer links
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To logs speed pictures, DVD-Video use either H.262/MPEG-2 move 2
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compression at up to 9.8 Mbit/s
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or MPEG-1 move 2
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compression at up to 1.856 Mbit/s . DVD-Video help video with a bit depth
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of 8-bits per improved YCbCr
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with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
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.
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The following change are allowed for MPEG-1 video:
352x288 pixels at 25 frame/s, progressive
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352x240 pixels at 29.97 frame/s, active
The MPEG-1 move 2 dress perform not help interlaced video. The H.262/MPEG-2 move 2 dress help both interlaced and progressive-scan content. Content with enclose rate different from one of the evaluate show above can be encoded to H.262/MPEG-2 move 2 by use pulldown
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. This is most ordinarily employed to encrypted 23.976 frame/s limit for playback at 29.97 frame/s.
The audio data on a DVD movie can be PCM
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, DTS
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, MPEG-1 Audio shape II
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, or Dolby Digital
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format. In countries use the PAL
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system modular DVD-Video releases must contain at least one audio track using the PCM, MP2, or AC-3 format, and all modular PAL players must help all cardinal of these formats. A akin modular existing in countries using the NTSC
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system, though with no requirement tasks the use of or support for the MP2 format. DTS audio is optional for all players, as DTS was not part of the initial types modular and was added later; thus, galore early players are unable to play DTS audio tracks. Only PCM and DTS support 96 kHz sampling rate. Because PCM, be uncompressed, requires a lot of bandwidth and DTS is not universally support by players, 96 kHz sampling rate is rare for DVDs. The vast majority of commercial DVD-Video releases nowadays employ AC-3
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audio. The authoritative allowed change for the audio bring in on a dvd video are:
PCM: 48 kHz or 96 kHz smoke rate, 16 bit or 24 bit Linear PCM
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, 2 to 6 channels, up to 6,144 kbit/s. N.B. 16-bit 48 kHz 8 transport PCM is allowed by the DVD-Video specification but is not well-supported by write applications or players. AC-3: 48 kHz smoke rate, 1 to 5.1 channels, up to 448 kbit/s DTS: 48 kHz or 96 kHz smoke rate, 2 to 6.1 channels, up to 768 kbit/s for fractional Rate, up to 1,536 kbit/s for beat sequenced MP2: 48 kHz smoke rate, 1 to 7.1 channels
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, up to 912 kbit/s
DVD-Video discs keep a raw bitrate of 11.08 Mbit/s, with a 1.0 Mbit/s overhead, leaving a payload bitrate of 10.08 Mbit/s. Of this, up to 3.36 Mbit/s can be employed for subtitles, a supreme of 10.08 Mbit/s can be change integrity amongst audio and video, and a supreme of 9.80 Mbit/s can be employed for video alone. In the case of multiple angles the data is stored interleaved, and so there's a bitrate penalty directive to a max bitrate of 8 Mbit/s per angle to compensate for cumulative seek time. This limit is not cumulative, so each cumulative angle can still keep up to 8 Mbit/s of bitrate available.
deployed to change imagine banner finished modular editions, Columbia TriStar chambers Entertainment
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give "Superbit
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" – a quality lining of DVD-Video titles having normal bitrates closer to 6 Mbit/s. Audio quality was also improved by the mandatory inclusion of both Dolby Digital and DTS 5.1 surround audio tracks. Multiple languages, angles, and extra audio tracks were eliminated to free up more than space for the important title and thereby to ensure the advanced data rate possible. In January 2007 the Superbit lining was discontinued.
variant have
any hardware players willing besides vie DVD-ROMs or CD-ROMs
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containing "raw" MPEG video files; these are "unauthored" and missing the file
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and header organize that be DVD-Video. modular DVD-Video show contain extra information that DVD players use to travel the disc.
active all DVD-Video discs use the UDF connect format, which is a combination of the DVD MicroUDF and ISO 9660
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show systems.
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The UDF connect dress give approve compatibility for direct systems that help single ISO 9660.
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Most DVD players misunderstood the UDF filesystem from a DVD-Video disc and mock the ISO9660 filesystem.
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Directory and show organize
IFO
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show have tamper and playback information – e.g. information around chapters, give and audio tracks. They do not have any video or audio data or subtitles.
Data interlocked rescue on a DVD-compliant disc are components of one of the cardinal data gangs label domains:
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First-play – archetypal vie PGC located in the VIDEO_TS.IFO file Video Manager – contains VIDEO_TS.IFO, VIDEO_TS.BUP and VIDEO_TS.VOB Video label Set – contains "VTS_zz_x.IFO", "VTS_zz_x.BUP" and "VTS_zz_x.VOB" show Video label Set Menu – uses "VTS_zz_0.VOB" show Container important article: VOB
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DVD recorders
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can use DVD-VR
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or DVD+VR
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dress rather of DVD-Video. DVD-VR dress have multiplexed audiovisual limit in VRO containers.
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VRO show is an corresponding to a collection of DVD-Video VOB files.
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interrupts VRO show are not widely support by hardware or software players and video improved software.
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DVD+VR modular be a dianoetic dress for DVD-Video amenable rescued on optical discs and is ordinarily employed on DVD+R/RW media.
See also: DVD-VR
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 and DVD+VR
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give
give can washing variant intend as well. For example, in the DVD sacrifice of Thirteen Days
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one of the supply bring in encompasses history notes, powering cumulative information specify to the events constitute in the film. In the sacrifice of For All Mankind
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give demonstrates designate of the NASA missions and designate of the populate show on the screen. Shaun of the Dead
dvd video
besides have trivia facts around the building of the rescue on its give menu.
dvd video may besides contain closed captioning
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mercenary which can single be think on a television set with a decoder.
Chapters and moving
A significant transfer point of dvd video is that the storage capacity allows for a widest variety of extra, or bonus, have in addition to the feature film. These excess have can include audio commentary
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; documental features, ordinarily around the building of the important title; interviews
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; deleted footage
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; outtakes
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; photo galleries; storyboards
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; isolates music scores
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; trivia text commentary; simplest games; film shorts
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; TV spots
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; radio spots
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; theatrical trailers
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which be employed to further the important title; and teaser trailers
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advertise think movies or DVDs.
variant extras that can be include on DVDs are contact menus, comforts pictures, up to 32 selectable subtitles, seamless branching
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for aggregate storylines, up to 9 camera angles, and DVD-ROM
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/ data show that can be recover on a computer.
DVD-Video has cardinal contradictory systems designing to contents the DVD user in antithetic ways: Macrovision
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, Content moving System
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, region codes
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, and disabled user operations
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. At that place are besides anti-ripping techniques intend to distinguish ripping software
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.
limit moving System
CSS perform not make it difficult to copy the digital content now that a decoder has appeared released, nor is it possible to distinguish betwixt judicial and illegal types of a work, but CSS perform restrict the playback software that may be used.
The DMCA currently improved single the connects States, nevertheless galore variant countries are signatories to the akin WIPO Treaty
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. In any countries it is not amerciable to use de-scrambling software to avoid the DVD restrictions. A number of software programs
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keep since been on the Web to think DVDs on a be of other platforms.
After DeCSS ripping software became available, companies developed techniques to introduce errors in DVD-Video discs that do not normally processing playback and navigation of a disc, but can perform problems in software that attempts to write the intact disc. These approaches, which are not part of the authoritative DVD-Video specification, include Sony ARccOS Protection
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, Macrovision RipGuard
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, X-protect
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, ProtectDisc SecureBurn
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, Anaho,
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Fortium, and others. All of these methods keep appeared invading . Riplock
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is a have that slowing tools look during playback but unwittingly slowing segment speed.
changed user operations important article: User operation prohibition
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Each DVD-Video disc contains one or more region codes, designate the area of the world in which distribution and playback are intended. The commercial DVD player specification inflict that a player essential only play discs that contain its region code. In theory, this allows the motion imagine studios to tamper the antithetic aspects of a release on a region-by-region basis, or guarantee the success of "staggered" or delayed cinema releases from country to country. For example, the British movie 28 Days Later
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was released on DVD in Europe several months prior to the film's release in North American movie theaters. Regional code have the European DVD unplayable for most North American consumers, thereby guarantee that schedule sales would be comparatively unaffected.
From a intercontinental perspective regional code may be perceive as a failure.
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A ample percentage of players outside of northbound America can be elementary modified to ignore the regional codes on a disc. This, coupled with the fact that active all televisions in Europe and Australasia
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are capable of displaying NTSC video , means that consumers in these regions have a ample ace of discs. other to popular belief, this practise is not amerciable and in some countries that strongly help free trade it is encouraged.
The CSS
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license prohibits manufacturing of DVD players that are not set to a only region by default. While the same license prohibits manufacturers from including prominent interfaces to change the region setting it does not clearly prevent them from including "hidden" menus that enable the player's region to be changed; as such, galore high-end imitate in the U.S. include password-protected or different hidden methods to enable multi-region playback. Conversely in the UK and Ireland galore affordable DVD players are multi-region while more expensive systems, including the majority of home cinema
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systems, are purpose to vie single region 2 discs.
At that place are also two cumulative region codes, region 7, which is reserved, and region 8, which is employed solely for passenger buses such as airlines and moving ships.
schedule interface
contemporary DVD recorders
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frequently help cumulative formats, include DVD+/-R/RW, CD-R/RW, MP3, WMA
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, SVCD
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, JPEG
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, PNG
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, SVG
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, KAR
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and MPEG-4
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.
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any besides includes USB
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ports or flash memory
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readers. Player price crops from as low as US$
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20 to as high as US$2,700 .
Video gage systems with DVD-Video playback functionality include: Panasonic Q
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, PlayStation 2
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, PlayStation 3
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, PlayStation 4
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, Wii
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,
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Xbox
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, Xbox 360
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, and Xbox One
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.
Competitors and successors
On 18 November 2003, the Chinese news agency Xinhua
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inform the close modular of the Chinese government-sponsored Enhanced change Disc
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which is different extension of modular DVD.
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soon thenceforth the development of the dress was stopped by a accept challenged betwixt Chinese allies and On2 Technologies
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, but on 6 December 2006, 20 Chinese electronic tighten unveils 54 prototype EVD players and inform their intention for the dress to totally replace DVDs in China by 2008.
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However, due to a missing of sales, help for EVD has tardive appeared move by the Xinhua Bookstore in Wuhan
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, which was a bones supporter of the format.
Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD See also: High definition optical disc dress war
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With HD DVD open in gimp 2006 and Blu-ray open in June of the aforesaid year, a format war
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started. Industry analysts major the situation to the VHS/Betamax dress war
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of the 1980s. At the time of their launch, consumer awareness of either high-definition format was badly limited, with the end result that most consumers avoids any formats, already limit with DVD. In February 2008, Toshiba capitulated, citing low demand for HD DVD and the fastest growth of Blu-ray, among other reasons.
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Toshiba ended production of their HD DVD players and cheeses promotion of the format, while the HD DVD movie sacrifice schedule reasons by June 2008.
China northern High-definition Disc was announcing in September 2007. This dress is basing on HD DVD
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. While the Blu-ray dress is marketing internationally, CBHDs keep transfer significantly in the Chinese market.
Hourly recording storage-capacity
  • Posted on 22. March 2014
  • Written by admin
  • Categories: Dvd video
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