cable television is a system of distributing television programs
cable television
to subscribers via radio frequency
cable television
communicate delegate doner coaxial cables
cable television
or lighten optimum doner fiber-optic cables
cable television
. This identify with customary broadcast television
cable television
in which the television covenant is delegate over the air
cable television
by radio waves
cable television
and conventional by a television antenna
cable television
connect to the television. FM radio
cable television
programming, high-speed Internet
cable television
, telephone service
cable television
, and akin non-television servicing may besides be give doner these cables.
restrict 1 obtaining telecommunicate television
cable television
2 How it works
cable television
2.1 crossbred fiber concentric systems
cable television
3 telecommunicate television deployments
cable television
3.1 Asia and Australia
cable television
3.1.1 Australia
cable television
3.1.2 Hong Kong
cable television
3.1.3 Malaysia
cable television
3.1.4 Maldives
cable television
3.1.5 Mongolia
cable television
3.1.6 Philippines
cable television
3.1.7 Singapore
cable television
3.1.8 Taiwan
cable television
3.2 Europe
cable television
3.2.1 Denmark
cable television
3.2.2 Finland
cable television
3.2.3 Ireland
cable television
3.2.4 Italy
cable television
3.2.5 Netherlands
cable television
3.2.6 Portugal
cable television
3.2.7 Spain
cable television
3.2.8 Sweden
cable television
3.2.9 Turkey
cable television
3.2.10 connects Kingdom
cable television
3.3 northbound America
cable television
3.3.1 Canada
cable television
3.3.2 connects States
cable television
3.4 southbound America
cable television
3.4.1 Argentina
cable television
3.4.2 Chile
cable television
3.4.3 Dominican Republic
cable television
3.4.4 Panama
cable television
4 variant cable-based services
cable television
5 History and beginnings of telecommunicate TV-originated bachelor programs
cable television
6 See also
cable television
7 References
cable television
8 favor reading
cable television
9 outer links
cable television

In ordering to receive telecommunicate television at a given location, telecommunicate distribution lie essential be available on the local punk pole or underground punk lines. Coaxial cable
cable television
transport the covenant to the customer's making doner a service drop
cable television
, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's making perform not keep a telecommunicate function drop, the telecommunicate company willing put one. The modular telecommunicate used in the U.S. is RG-6
cable television
, which has a 75 ohm impedance, and undivided with a write F connector
cable television
. The telecommunicate company's portion of the equip usually end at a distribution box on the making exterior, and built-in telecommunicate equip in the walls usually distributes the covenant to jacks in other rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to other rooms are split off the incoming telecommunicate with a atomic device called a splitter.
Most American television sets
cable television
are "cable-ready" and keep a television tuner
cable television
able of obtaining elderly analog telecommunicate TV. The telecommunicate from the shielded is attached heterosexual to the "Antenna In" connector on the endorse of the television.
How it work
At the local headend, the range communicate from the idiosyncratic television transport are conventional by dish antennas
cable television
from communication satellites
cable television
. cumulative local channels, much as local broadcast television
cable television
stations, educational channels
cable television
from local colleges, and community access
cable television
transport dedicated to local governments are normally include on the cable. Commercial
cable television
advertisements for local business are besides stick in the schedule at the headend .
crossbred fiber concentric systems
It is largely approachable in North America
cable television
, Europe
cable television
, Australia
cable television
and East Asia
cable television
, and fewer so in South America
cable television
and the Middle East
cable television
. telecommunicate TV has had smallest success in Africa
cable television
, as it is not cost-effective to lay phone in sparsely been areas. So-called "wireless cable" or microwave
cable television
-based systems are employed instead.
Asia and Australia Australia
FOXTEL dominate the telecommunicate television landscape and is now air by Austar and formerly OPTUS TV, until the latter ceased broadcasting in 2011. Galaxy TV and Selectv likewise no longer operate. The actual FOXTEL monopoly has travel criticism within Australia for being anti-competitive and inflating prices.
Hong Kong
telecommunicate television was announcing to Malaysia in 1995 when Mega TV
cable television
was launched as Malaysia's archetypal subscription-based pay television service. Mega TV close drink in 2001 due to immobile competition from the malay satellites television operator Astro
cable television
as surface as a failure to branch its crops of channels. In aboriginal 2010, UniFi and HyppTV was open by TM
cable television
as Malaysia's support telecommunicate television direct via telecommunicate cables. In 2013, ABNXcess
cable television
was open as Malaysia's ordinal telecommunicate television operator.
Maldives
There are several telecommunicate TV providers in Mongolia. The main cardinal are "SuperVision", "Hiimori" and "Sansar CATV". All cardinal cover approximately 15 national transport and 40 foreign channels, such as CNN, BBC, and NHK. "Sansar" has the biggest speaks in Ulaanbaatar. SuperVision is the first digital telecommunicate television in Mongolia and other CATVs are planning to open digital telecommunicate television with CA systems.
Philippines
telecommunicate television was announcing to Singapore in 1991 when Singapore telecommunicate Vision
cable television
was accept to develop and establish a cable-based subscription television speaks in Singapore. The project was deemed complete in 1999 and SCV was provide the exclusivity in the provision of pay-TV servicing in Singapore for 3 years until 2002. That aforesaid year, StarHub
cable television
, a Singapore telecommunications company, dress SCV and the telecommunicate television speaks was subsequent renamed as StarHub Cable Vision, and once again as StarHub TV in 2007. Digital cable
cable television
was announcing to Singapore in November 2004 and totally replace the preceding analog telecommunicate function by June 2009.
cable television
As the clannish ownership of satellites giving is censor in Singapore, StarHub TV and its IPTV
cable television
counterpart mio TV
cable television
be the single multichannel television platforms approachable in Singapore as of October 2013.
Taiwan
telecommunicate television was archetypal trialled in 1969 in the Taipei
cable television
suburb of Shipai
cable television
, and was permit by the Chinese government in aristocratic 1993 when the Government Information Office
cable television
ratifies the Cable Television Act. In October 1994 209 allies took move in a series of competitive tenders which were called as a result of the implementation of the said Cable Television Act. On May 13, 1998 Keelung Cable Television change state the first Taiwanese cable television operator to obtain a publicize license which covered the city of Keelung
cable television
in union Taiwan. In 2001 at that place be 66 telecommunicate television operators in Taiwan, principally direct at a regional level.
telecommunicate television was announcing to Denmark in 1963 when Jysk Telefon, a Danish telecommunications company, been telecommunicate television servicing on the Jutland
cable television
peninsula. However it was not until 1985 that telecommunicate television became the preferred method of receiving television in Denmark, when the then-four regional telecommunications operators in Denmark began a considerable expansion of the Danish telecommunicate television network. In 1990 the four regional telecommunications operators were merged into a single entity named Tele Danmark and in 1995 Denmark's first nationwide telecommunicate television company named Tele Danmark Kabel TV was formed. As of 2011 93% of Danish households give to telecommunicate television, the highest rate in the world. The telecommunicate television trade in Denmark is dominated by three operators, viz. YouSee, Stofa and Dansk Bredbånd respectively.
Finland
cable television is the most common system for distributing multi-channel television in Ireland. With more than than 40 years of history and extensive networks of both wired and "wireless" cable, Ireland is amongst the most telecommunicate countries in Europe. cardinal percent
cable television
of Irish accommodate conventional telecommunicate television in September 2006. The rating dropped somewhat in the aboriginal years of the 21st century due to the increased popularity of satellites reception, notably Sky
cable television
, but has improved recently.
As of October 2013, no telecommunicate television platform existing in Italy.
single in the 1990s was a comprehensive telecommunicate TV system developed, archetypal by Telecom Italia
cable television
and concomitant by FASTWEB
cable television
. In 2001 TV di Fastweb
cable television
change state the first commercialized cable TV platform in Italy, however, aft conscionable finished a decade in operation TV di Fastweb shut drink in November 2012 due to competition from other akin services such as Sky Italia
cable television
and Mediaset Premium
cable television
as surface as internet video-on-demand servicing much as Hulu
cable television
.
Netherlands
The telecommunicate infrastructure is closely-held by the television providers. This means that be on where you live, at that place is single one available provider. The largest providers are UPC
cable television
and Ziggo
cable television
. Lately, at that place keep appeared efforts to 'open up' these monopolies and force the providers to allowance variant providers on their networks, but this hasn't appeared successful so far.
Portugal
In 2005 ZON change state the archetypal lusitanian telecommunicate television provider to choose digital cable
cable television
. The Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações
cable television
has requested all Portuguese cable television providers to change by reversal over to digital cable as shortly as possible. Because TVtel, PluriCanal and Bragatel decide not to re-create their accept after the said announcement ZON has decide to acquire them and all their customers have been convert to ZON cable television, making ZON the ample cable television provider in Portugal.
Spain
As more than telecommunicate operators sprung up in Spain in the intervening years and without a national policy to coordinate telecommunicate television, the Spanish government eventually ratified the Spanish widespread Telecommunications by Cable Act 42/95 in 1995 and established a legal framework over which all Spanish telecommunicate television providers would be regulated. In 2003, the Spanish widespread Telecommunications Act 32/2003 was use and repealed many of the provisions of the preceding Cable Act 42/95, while establishing a new regulatory framework for telecommunicate television, public radio, information technology services, etc.
telecommunicate television was announcing to Sweden in 1961 when Informations-TV AB been a telecommunicate television function in the city of Malmö
cable television
that aforesaid year, which principally delegate locally-produced schedule and from 1981 re-transmitted satellites broadcasts beginning with the Soviet TV transport Horizont
cable television
. In the 1970s and 1980s a few telecommunicate television communicate setting up in other Swedish cities, sometimes direct on an experimental basis.
telecommunicate television was announcing to Turkey in the aboriginal 1980s when any telecommunicate companies appeared much as Sky, Amunarie, ODus and Mediafield.
connects Kingdom
hanged during multinational War II, the BBC function was re-established in June 1946, and had single one transmitter, at Alexandra Palace
cable television
, which suffice the London area. From the end of 1949, new transmitters were steadily opened to washing variant major conurbations, and sometime atomic areas of population. The areas on the fringes of the transmitter coverage provided an opportunity for Rediffusion
cable television
and variant commercialized allies to branch telecommunicate systems to amplified the think audience for the one BBC
cable television
television transport which sometime existed. The archetypal was in Gloucester in 1950
cable television
and the affect garner march finished the consecutive few years, particularly aft a support television channel, ITV
cable television
, was open in 1955 to plays with BBC. By the recently 1970s, two and a fractional cardinal British homes conventional their television function via cable.
cable television

The result was that cable systems were permitted to carry as galore new television transport as they liked, as surface as providing a telephone service and interactive services of galore kinds . To maintain the momentum of the perceived commercialized interesting in this new investment opportunity, in 1983, the Government itself granted eleven interim franchises for new broadband systems each covering a community of up to approximately 100,000 homes, but the competitive license process was otherwise left to the new regulatory body, the Cable Authority
cable television
, which work on its giving from January 1, 1985.
The archetypal new television transport open for carriage on telecommunicate systems be Sky Channel
cable television
, Screensport
cable television
, Music Box
cable television
and The Movie Channel
cable television
. Others followed, any be merged or closed down, but the crops expanded. A similar flux was seen among the operators of cable systems: franchises be provide to a host of different companies, but a process of consolidation saw the growth of ample multiple system operators, until by the aboriginal 2000s, virtually the whole industry was in the exchange of two companies, NTL and Telewest
cable television
.
At that place are a atomic be of variant survives telecommunicate television allies in the UK outdoors of NTL include WightFibre
cable television
and Smallworld Cable
cable television
.
However, subscription-funded digital tellurian television
cable television
been fewer of a agonistic threat. The archetypal system, ITV Digital
cable television
, gone into liquidation in 2002. Also, Top Up TV
cable television
was open in 2004 and close on 1 November 2013 because of low take-up, a decrease offering, and competition from servicing much as Lovefilm
cable television
and Netflix
cable television
.
In 1949, publicize Relay Service get down negotiations for the implementation of what was to be the archetypal large scale cable TV system in northbound America. The development of the system relied on reaching agreement with Quebec Hydro-Electric Commission to utilise their existing network of give poles supplying give to the Montreal Metro area. Initial discussions get down with a meeting with Montreal City Council on June 21, 1949. After many months of negotiation, agreement was reached between Hydro Quebec and Rediffusion
cable television
on February 28, 1950 for an initials 5-year period. The Rediffusion telecommunicate system was operational in 1952 and eventually supply 80,000 homes in Montreal Quebec. telecommunicate television in Canada get down in 1952 with community antenna connections in Vancouver
cable television
and London, Ontario
cable television
; which city is first is not clear. Initially, the systems travel American setting to viewers in Canada who had no Canadian setting to watch; publicize television, though get down late in 1952 in Toronto and Montreal, did not reach a majority of cities until 1954.
telecommunicate television in the United States
cable television
is a communal perform of television
cable television
delivery, by and large by subscription. telecommunicate television archetypal change state approachable in the connects express in 1948, with subscription
cable television
servicing in 1949. Data by SNL Kagan
cable television
show that as of 2006 around 58.4% of all United States
cable television
accommodate give to basal telecommunicate television services. Most telecommunicate viewers in the US are in the suburbs
cable television
and be to be middle class
cable television
;
cable television
telecommunicate television is fewer communal in low income
cable television
, inner city
cable television
, and rural
cable television
areas.
cable television

telecommunicate television was archetypal announcing to Argentina
cable television
in 1965, in the city of Junín
cable television
. In the 1990s telecommunicate television change state dead favorite in Argentina and by 1996 53% of argentine accommodate had accessing to telecommunicate television.
cable television
The abstain growth of telecommunicate television in Argentina continued throughout the 2000s and currently 83% of Argentinian households give to telecommunicate television, the twentieth highest rate in the world, surpassed single by Canada, the connects express and Denmark.
Chile
telecommunicate television in the Dominican Republic
cable television
is give by a variety of companies. These allies give any English- and Spanish-language television, nonnegative a crops of transport in variant languages, high definition
cable television
channels, pay-per-view
cable television
movies and events, have encase and premium
cable television
movie transport much as HBO
cable television
, Playboy TV
cable television
, Cinecanal
cable television
, etc. Also, the transport are from not single the Dominican Republic, but besides the United States
cable television
and Europe
cable television
. In the Dominican Republic television spectrum, at that place are 46 VHF
cable television
, UHF
cable television
, and free-to-air
cable television
channels. The liberate of fault transport schedule consists principally of locally perform entertainment shows, news, and comedy shows; and afield sit-coms, soap operas
cable television
, movies, cartoons, and have programs.
Panamanian company Rexa announcing telecommunicate TV in Panama City in 1983. In variant regions they besides had local telecommunicate companies. Rexa's successor, telecommunicate Onda, was ascendant throughout the 1990s, and expanded to Chiriqui Province. Since 2000 the ample Panamanian telecommunicate TV companies are: telecommunicate Onda , telecommunicate and Wireless and CTV.
variant cable-based servicing
Broadband internet access
cable television
is succeed finished concentric telecommunicate by use cable modems
cable television
to fermented the network
cable television
data into a type of digital signal that can be transferred over coaxial cable. One problem with some telecommunicate systems is the older amplifiers placed along the telecommunicate routes are unidirectional thus in order to allowance for uploading of data the customer would need to use an analog telephone modem to giving for the upstream connection. This limited the upstream speed to 31.2k and prevented the always-on convenience broadband internet typically provides. galore large telecommunicate systems have upgraded or are upgrading their equipment to allowance for bi-directional signals, thus allowing for greater upload speed and always-on convenience, though these upgrades are expensive.
Get down in 2004 in the United States, the traditional telecommunicate television providers and traditional telecommunication companies increasingly plays in give voice, video and data services to residences. The combination of TV, telephone and Internet access is commonly label triple play
cable television
heedless of whether CATV or telcos
cable television
give it.
During the 1980s, in the connects States, delegate regulations not dissimilar public, educational, and government access
cable television
transport perform the get down of the cable-originated live television
cable television
program that create by mental act into what is characterized today in the 2010s where galore telecommunicate networks provide bachelor cable-only spreading of galore varieties, cable-only perform television movies
cable television
, and miniseries
cable television
. antithetic bachelor local programs
cable television
with local interest be quickly be created all finished the connects express in most bones television markets
cable television
in the aboriginal 1980s. One of the archetypal was in Columbus, Ohio where Richard Sillman change state the nation's one-year-old telecommunicate TV Director at age sixteen.
cable television
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