Blu-ray Disc is a digital
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optical disc
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data storage
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dress designing to attain the DVD
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format. The elastic disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the aforesaid coat as DVDs
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and CDs
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.
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traditional Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB
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per layer, with dual shape discs be the industry standard for feature-length video discs. doubled shape discs and doubled moulding are approachable for BD-XL re-writer drives.
blu ray disc
The term Blu-ray Disc think of to the blue laser
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employed to misunderstood the disc, which allows information to be have at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser employed for DVDs
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. The bones application of Blu-ray Discs is as a moderate for video mercenary much as feature films
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. also the hardware specifications, Blu-ray Disc is think with a set of multimedia formats. Generally, these change allowance for the video and audio to be stored with greater definition than on DVD.
During the high definition optical disc dress war
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, Blu-ray Disc plays with the HD DVD
blu ray disc
format. Toshiba
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, the important consort that support HD DVD, admit in February 2008,
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let go of its own Blu-ray Disc player in recently 2009.
blu ray disc

History
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
A forestall rewritable Blu-ray Disc . History
The archetypal DVR northern prototypes be unveils at the CEATEC
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exhibition in October 2000 by Sony
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.
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A code for the "Blue Disc" logo was show February 9, 2001.
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On February 19, 2002, the covenant was formally inform as Blu-ray Disc,
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
and Blu-ray Disc Founders
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was initiative by the cardinal initials members.
Hollywood studios alleging that players be supply with digital rights management
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earlier they would sacrifice movies for the new format, and they fish a new DRM system that would be more than obtain than the rating Content moving System
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employed on DVDs.
The Blu-ray Disc animal specifications be end in 2004.
blu ray disc

The BD-ROM specifications be went in aboriginal 2006.
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The archetypal BD-ROM players be setting in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD
blu ray disc
players best them to trade by a few months.
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blu ray disc

The archetypal mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable tools for the PC was the BWU-100A, let go of by Sony
blu ray disc
on July 18, 2006.
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It recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699.
Competition from HD DVD important article: High definition optical disc dress war
blu ray disc

HD DVD had a head be in the high-definition video market, as Blu-ray Disc sales be slow to get trade share. The archetypal Blu-ray Disc player was listening as expensive and buggy, and at that place be few term available.
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By January 2007, Blu-ray Discs had surpass HD DVDs,
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and during the archetypal three-quarters of 2007, BD outweigh HD DVD by around two to one. At CES 2007
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, Warner declare Total Hi Def
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—a crossbred disc containing Blu-ray on one sides and HD DVD on the other, but it was ne'er released.
On January 4, 2008, a day earlier CES
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2008, Warner Bros.
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inform that it would sacrifice single in Blu-ray Disc aft May 2008.
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This efficaciously include variant studios that happen alto the Warner umbrella, much as New lining Cinema
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and HBO
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—though in Europe
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, HBO distribution partner, the BBC
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, announced it would, while have an eye on trade forces, continue to sacrifice product on both formats. This led to a arrange reaction in the industry, with bones U.S. retailers such as Best Buy
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, Walmart
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, and Circuit City
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and Canadian
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packing much as Future Shop
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travel HD DVD in their stores. A sometime bones European retailer, Woolworths
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, move HD DVD from its inventory.
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Netflix
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and Blockbuster
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—major DVD rental
blu ray disc
companies—said they would no agelong travel HD DVD.
match to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the US be bumper-to-bumper in the archetypal two years than DVD software sales.
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16.3 cardinal DVD software units be transfer in the archetypal two years analyze to 8.3 cardinal high-definition software units .
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One categorized computerized for this difference was the atomic marketplace .
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Former HD DVD supporter Microsoft
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has word that they are not intend to forms a Blu-ray Disc tools for the Xbox 360
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.
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The 360's successor Xbox One
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have a Blu-ray tools but as with the PS4, perform not help 3D Blu-ray. This may improved with concomitant firmware improved however.
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match to Singulus Technologies
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AG, Blu-ray is be adopting faster than the DVD dress was at a similar period in its development. This conclusion was basing on the fact that Singulus Technologies has conventional orders for 21 Blu-ray dual-layer shape during the first quarter of 2008, while 17 DVD shape of this type be made in the same period in 1997.
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match to GfK transfer and Technology, in the archetypal week of November 2008, sales of Blu-ray recorders tops DVD recorders in Japan.
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According to the Digital Entertainment Group, the average be of Blu-ray Disc playback devices transfer in the U.S. had peak 28.5 cardinal by the end of 2010.
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Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has appeared finalized, engineers act to take on advancing the technology. By 2005, quad-layer discs had appeared demonstrated on a drive with dress optics
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and modular dateless optics.
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Hitachi stated that much a disc could be employed to have 7 hours of 32 Mbit/s video or 3 hours and 30 minutes of 64 Mbit/s video . In aristocratic 2006, TDK
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inform that they had created a working experimental Blu-ray Disc able of respects 200 GB of data on a single side, use six 33 GB data layers.
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JVC
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has create a three-layer technology that allows setting any standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/ DVD combination.
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If successfully commercialized, this would change the consumer to get a disc that can be vie on DVD players and can also show its HD version when vie on a BD player.
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Japanese optical disc manufacturer Infinity announced the first "hybrid" Blu-ray Disc/ DVD combo, to be released February 18, 2009. This disc set of the TV series "Code Blue" have cardinal hybrid discs containing a only Blu-ray Disc layer and two DVD moulding on the same sides of the disc.
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In December 2008, Pioneer Corporation
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unveiled a 400 GB Blu-ray Disc that willing be congenial with current players aft a firmware update. Its planned launch is in the 2009–10 quantify frame for ROM and 2010–13 for rewritable discs. actual development is underway to designed a 1 TB
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Blu-ray Disc as shortly as 2013.
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On January 1, 2010, Sony, in association with Panasonic, inform plans to increase the storage capacity on their Blu-ray Discs from 25 GB to 33.4 GB via a technology label i-MLSE . The higher-capacity discs, according to Sony, willing be legible on truest Blu-ray Disc players with a firmware upgrade. No date has appeared set to include the increased space, although in 2010 Blu-ray.com reported that "it willing probably occurs sometime later this year."
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On January 7, 2013, Sony inform that it would sacrifice "Mastered in 4K" Blu-ray Disc term which are sourced at 4K and fermented at 1080p.
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"Mastered in 4K" Blu-ray Disc term can be vie on endangered Blu-ray Disc players and willing help a ample color space
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use xvYCC
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.
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While a DVD use a 650 nm
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red laser, Blu-ray Disc use a 405 nm "blue
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" laser diode
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. answer that flat though the laser is label "blue", its improved is really in the violet
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range. The shorter wavelength can be focused to a smaller area, thus enabling it to misunderstood information recorded in pits that are fewer than fractional the size of those on a DVD, and can consequently be spaced more than closely, resulting in a shorter bring in pitch, enabling a Blu-ray Disc to hold about five meters the amounts of information that can be stored on a DVD.
The borderline "spot size
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" on which a laser can be focussed is manipulate by diffraction
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, and be on the wavelength of the lighten and the numerical aperture
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of the lens
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employed to think it. By decreasing the wavelength, increasing the numerical aperture from 0.60 to 0.85, and making the cover shape thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser beam can be focussed to a smaller spot, which efficaciously allows more information to be stored in the aforesaid area.
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For Blu-ray Disc, the spy coat is 580 nm.
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This allows a reduction of the pit coat from 400 nm for DVD to 150 nm for Blu-ray Disc, and of the bring in pitching from 740 nm to 320 nm.
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See Compact Disc
blu ray disc
for information on optical discs' animal structure.
Since the Blu-ray Disc data shape is nearer to the well of the disc analyze to the DVD
blu ray disc
standard, it was at archetypal more than assailable to scratches.
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The archetypal discs be house in cartridges
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for protection, mismatched Professional Discs
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announcing by Sony in 2003.
The Blu-ray Disc specification need the examine of resistance to hint by mechanical abrasion
blu ray disc
.
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In contrast, DVD media are not necessitate to be scratch-resistant, but since development of the technology, some companies, much as Verbatim, use hard-coating for more than costly lineups of recordable DVDs.
rescued moving BD tools travel tools moving Data sequenced ~Write quantify Mbit/s
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MB/s
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Single-Layer Dual-Layer 1× 36 4.5 90 180 2× 72 9 45 90 4× 144 18 22.5 45 6× 216 27 15 30 8× 288 36 11.25 22.5 10× 360 45 9 18 12× 432 54 7.5 15 14× 504 63 6.5 13 16× 576 72 5.7 11.5 boxes
The "Mini Blu-ray Disc" is a be 8 cm -diameter other of the Blu-ray Disc that can have around 7.8 GB of data.
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It is akin in concept to the MiniDVD
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and MiniCD
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. Recordable and rewritable versions of Mini Blu-ray Disc have appeared developed specifically for be camcorders and variant be rescued devices.
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Blu-ray Disc recordable important article: Blu-ray Disc recordable
blu ray disc

Since September 2007, BD-RE
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is besides approachable in the atomic 8 cm Mini Blu-ray Disc size.
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dissimilar the preceding let go of of 120 mm optical discs
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, Blu-ray recorders hit the trade active at the same time with Blu-ray's debut.
BD9 and BD5
Usage of BD9 for releasing content on "pressed" discs has never caught on. After the end of the format war, bones producers act up the production of Blu-ray Discs and lowered their prices to the level of DVDs. On the other hand, the idea of using inexpensive DVD media became popular among individual users. A lower-capacity version of this format that uses single-layer 4.7 GB DVDs has been unofficially called BD5. Both change are being employed by individuals for recording high definition content in Blu-ray format onto recordable DVD media.
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AVCHD
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and AVCREC
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besides use bargain-priced media seeking DVDs, but dissimilar BD9 and BD5 these change keep manipulate interactivity, codec types, and data rates.
The BDXL dress help 100 GB and 128 GB write-once discs
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
and 100 GB rewritable discs for commercialized applications. It was be in June 2010.
BD-RE 4.0 dress Specification be a multi-layered disc rewritable in BDAV with the moving of 2× and 4×, able of 100 GB and usage of UDF2.5 as show system.
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IH-BD
Blu-ray Disc specified the use of Universal disks Format
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2.50 as a confluent affable dress for any PC and consumer electronics environments.
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It is employed in the actual specifications of BD-ROM, BD-RE and BD-R.
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The Blu-ray Disc application for rescued of digital broadcasting
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has appeared create as System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc dress move 3 Audio Visual basal Specifications. The requirements think with computer file
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system keep appeared leased in System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc dress move 2 File System Specifications version 1.0 .
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All BD-ROM application show are have alto a “BDMV” directory.
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BDMV directory: contains the PLAYLIST, CLIPINF, STREAM, AUXDATA and BACKUP directories. PLAYLIST directory: contains the Database show for Movie PlayLists. xxxxx.mpls files: store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One show is created for each Movie PlayList. The filenames of these show are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Movie PlayList. CLIPINF directory: contains the Database show for Clips. zzzzz.clpi files: store Clip information associated with a Clip AV streamed file. The filenames of these show are in the form “zzzzz.clpi”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. STREAM directory: contains AV streamed files. zzzzz.m2ts file: contains a BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream. The names of these show are in the form “zzzzz.m2ts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz” is used for an AV streamed show and its associated Clip information file. SSIF directory: If used, Stereoscopic Interleaved show shall be placed under this directory. zzzzz.ssif file: is a Stereoscopic Interleaved show that is composed from two BDAV MPEG-2 transport streams. Both of the streams include an MPEG-4 MVC view video streamed for left eye or right eye respectively. This show is used only when 3D video is played back. The 5-digit number “zzzzz” is the same as the number used for the AV streamed show “zzzzz.m2ts” that includes the MPEG-4 MVC Base view video stream. AUXDATA directory: contains Sound data show and Font files. sound.bdmv file: stores data relating to one or more sounds associated with HDMV Interactive Graphic streams applications. This show may or may not exist under the AUXDATA directory. If it exists, there shall be only one sound.bdmv file. aaaaa.otf file: stores the font information associated with Text subtitle applications. The names of these show are in the form “aaaaa.otf”, where “aaaaa” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Font. BACKUP directory: contains copies of the "index.bdmv” file, the “MovieObject.bdmv” file, all the show in the PLAYLIST directory and all show in the CLIPINF directory. index.bdmv file: stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one index.bdmv show under the BDMV directory. MovieObject.bdmv file: stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one MovieObject.bdmv under the BDMV directory. Media format Container format
Blu-ray Disc employs the MPEG buses streamed rescued method. That enables buses streamed of digital spreading to be rescue as they are broadcast, without altering the format.
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It besides enables flexible improved of a digital broadcast that is recorded as is and where the data can be improved conscionable by rewriting the playback stream. Although it is quite natural, a services for high-speed and easy-to use retrieval is built in.
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Blu-ray Disc Video use MPEG buses streams, analyze to DVD's MPEG schedule streams
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. This allows aggregate video slot to be have in the aforesaid show so they can be vie endorse at the same time .
Codecs
High-definition video may be have on BD-ROMs with up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at up to 60 fields
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per second. Officially, active tests video can go up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at 24 enclose per second, or up to 59.94 enclose per support at a resolution of 1280×720 pixels.
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galore truest Blu-ray players and recorders now help 1920×1080 video at the beat 60p and 50p active format.
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Resolution enclose rate
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Aspect ratio 1920×1080 60i 16:9 1920×1080 50i 16:9 1920×1080 24p 16:9 1920×1080 23.976p 16:9 1440×1080
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60i 4:3 1440×1080
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50i 4:3 1440×1080
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24p 4:3 1280×720 60p 16:9 1280×720 50p 16:9 1280×720 24p 16:9 720×480 60i 4:3 or 16:9 720×576 50i 4:3 or 16:9
For video, all players are necessitate to help H.262/MPEG-2 move 2
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, H.264/MPEG-4 move 10: AVC
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, and SMPTE
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VC-1
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.
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BD-ROM term with video essential have video using one of the three mandatory formats; multiple change on a only title are allowed. Blu-ray Disc supports video with a bit depth
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of 8-bits per improved YCbCr
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with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
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.
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MPEG-2 was employed by galore studios for the archetypal series of Blu-ray Discs, which be open end-to-end 2006.
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Modern let go of are now often encoded in either MPEG-4 AVC or VC-1, allowing film studios to place all limit on one disc, decrease be and improving ease of use. Using these formats besides liberate a lot of space for storage of bonus limit in HD , as opposes to the SD
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typically employed for most titles. any studios, much as Warner Bros.
blu ray disc
, keep let go of bonus limit on discs fermented in a other format than the important feature title. For example, the Blu-ray Disc sacrifice of Superman Returns
blu ray disc
use VC-1 for the have rescue and MPEG-2 for any of its bonus content.
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Today, Warner and variant studios typically giving bonus limit in the video format that united the feature.
Audio
For users rescued digital television
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programming, the recordable Blu-ray Disc standard's initial data sequenced of 36 Mbit/s is more than than adequate to record high-definition broadcasts from any source . BD Video movies keep a supreme data transfer sequenced of 54 Mbit/s, a supreme AV bitrate of 48 Mbit/s , and a supreme video bit sequenced of 40 Mbit/s. This compares to HD DVD movies, which keep a supreme data transfer sequenced of 36 Mbit/s, a supreme AV bitrate of 30.24 Mbit/s, and a supreme video bitrate of 29.4 Mbit/s.
blu ray disc

Application dress BDAV or BD-AV :
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blu ray disc
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
a consumer-oriented Blu-ray video dress employed for audio/video rescued . BDMV or BD-MV :
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blu ray disc
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
a Blu-ray video format with menu help ordinarily employed for movie releases. BDMV rescued specification .
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blu ray disc
RREF : a subset of BDMV designing for realtime rescued and improved applications.
blu ray disc
HFPA : A advanced definition audio disc using the Blu-ray dress Java software help important article: BD-J
blu ray disc

The BD-ROM specification be cardinal Blu-ray Disc player profiles, include an audio-only player write that perform not entailed video decrypting or BD-J
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. All of the video-based player types are necessitate to keep a beat implementation of BD-J, with change aim of hardware support.
have BD-Audio BD-Video improved Period
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Bonus think BD-Live
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Blu-ray 3D write 3.0
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write 1.0 write 1.1 write 2.0 write 5.0 Built-in continual memory No 64 KB 64 KB 64 KB 64 KB? Local storage capability
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No electoral 256 MB 1 GB 1 GB auxiliary video decoder No electoral compulsory compulsory compulsory auxiliary audio decoder
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No electoral compulsory compulsory compulsory Virtual show system
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No electoral compulsory compulsory compulsory Internet connection capability No No No compulsory compulsory
On November 2, 2007, the improved Period write was attain by Bonus think as the borderline write for new BD-Video players let go of to the market.
blu ray disc
When Blu-ray Disc software not types with interactive keep babelike on Bonus View or BD-Live hardware capabilities is played on write 1.0 players, it is capable to play the main feature of the disc, but some extra keep may not be approachable or willing keep manipulate capability.
blu ray disc

BD-Live
With the exception of the actual players and the PlayStation 3
blu ray disc
, write 1.0 players cannot be repaired to be Bonus think or BD-Live compliant.
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Region tag This oblige may entailed cleanup
blu ray disc
to accommodate quality standards
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. The special problem is: graphical and shelves are benignant of excess and contradicting. pleased encouraging improve this article
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if you can.
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Regions for the Blu-ray Disc standard:
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  A/1: The Americas
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and their dependencies
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, East Asia
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, and Southeast Asia
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.   B/2: Africa
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, Middle East
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, Southwest Asia
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, Europe
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, Australia, New Zealand, and their dependencies
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.   C/3: Central Asia
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, East Asia
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, South Asia
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, Eastern Europe
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, and their dependencies
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.
Movie studios keep other region code policies. Among bones U.S. studios, Warner Bros.
blu ray disc
, Paramount Pictures
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, Universal Studios
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, Sony Pictures
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, and Walt Disney Pictures
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keep let go of most of their term region-free.
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MGM
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and Lions gates Entertainment
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keep let go of a mix of region-free and region-coded titles.
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20th Century Fox
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has let go of most of their term region-coded.
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In circumvention of region code restrictions, stand-alone Blu-ray Disc players are sometimes dress by ordinal parties to allow for playback of Blu-ray Discs with any region code.
blu ray disc
Instructions describing how to reset the Blu-ray region comments of computer player applications to make them multi-region indefinitely are besides on a regular basis posted to video enthusiast websites and forums. Unlike DVD region codes, Blu-ray region tag are verified single by the player software, not by the optical drive's firmware
blu ray disc
.
Digital rights management
Blu-ray equipment is required to use the High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection system to encode the data travel by players to rendering devices through animal connections. This is aimed at preventing the copying of copyrighted content as it travels across cables. doner a protocol flag
blu ray disc
in the media streamed label the Image Constraint Token
blu ray disc
, a Blu-ray Disc can enforce its reproduction in a lower resolution whenever a full HDCP-compliant reasons is not used. In order to ease the convert to advanced definition formats, the adoption of this protection method was table until 2011.
blu ray disc

high accessing limit System
blu ray disc
blu ray disc
The AACS decryption process.
Since the appearance of the dress on devices in 2006, several boffo attacks
blu ray disc
keep appeared perform on it. The archetypal characterized circumvented trust on the trusted client
blu ray disc
problem. In addition, decryption find have appeared extract from a frail defend player . Since find can be vie in brand-new releases,
blu ray disc
this is single a acting attack, and new find essential continually be detects in ordering to rewrite the actual discs.
BD+
If a playback device manufacturer finds that its devices keep appeared hacked, it can potentially release BD+ code that discovered and circumvents the vulnerability. These programs can then be included in all new content releases.
blu ray disc

The archetypal term use BD+ be let go of in October 2007. Since November 2007, versions of BD+ protection have been circumvented by antithetic versions of the AnyDVD
blu ray disc
HD program.
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blu ray disc
variant slot characterized to be able of attack BD+ protection are DumpHD ,
blu ray disc
MakeMKV,
blu ray disc
and two applications from DVDFab
blu ray disc
).
BD-ROM brands
Though not compulsory, the Blu-ray Disc Association propose that Blu-ray Disc dialed be able of reading modular DVDs and CDs, for backward compatibility
blu ray disc
.
blu ray disc
A few aboriginal Blu-ray Disc players let go of in 2006 could vie DVDs but not CDs.
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blu ray disc
blu ray disc

Variations AVCHD important article: AVCHD
blu ray disc

Being chiefly an acquisition format, AVCHD playback is not universally supported by all devices that support Blu-ray Disc playback. Nevertheless, many much devices are able of playing AVCHD recordings from dismissible media, much as DVDs, SD
blu ray disc
/SDHC
blu ray disc
memory cards, "Memory Stick
blu ray disc
" cards, and hard disks drives
blu ray disc
.
blu ray disc

AVCREC important article: AVCREC
blu ray disc

The Blu-ray Disc Association perform a task compel made up of executives from the film industry and the consumer electronics and IT sectors to encouraging define standards for setting 3D film
blu ray disc
and 3D television
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limit on a Blu-ray Disc.
blu ray disc
On December 17, 2009, the BDA formally inform 3D specs for Blu-ray Disc, allowing inverse compatibility with truest 2D Blu-ray players.
blu ray disc
The BDA has said, "The Blu-ray 3D specification label for fermented 3D video use the "Stereo High" write be by Multiview Video Coding
blu ray disc
, an extension to the ITU-T H.264 Advanced Video Coding codec presently supported by all Blu-ray Disc players. MPEG4-MVC compresses both left and correctly eye views with a emblematic 50% overhead compared to corresponding 2D content, and can giving beat 1080p resolution inverse compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray Disc players."
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This means the MVC stream is backward compatible with H.264/AVC stream, allowing older 2D devices and software to decode stereoscopic video streams, ignoring additional information for the second view.
  • Posted on 22. March 2014
  • Written by admin
  • Categories: Blu ray disc
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